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Electrostatic Voltmeters

 

Electrostatic Voltmeters Overview

 
 
 
244A

Electrostatic Voltmeter - ISOPROBE® - Model 244A

The model 244A ISOPROBE® Electrostatic Voltmeter measures surface potential in the range of ±3000 volts without contacting the measured surface. It features high-accuracy (0.1%), drift-free measurements that are almost fully independent of probe-to-surface separation. It enjoys a proven record and long, successful history in both laboratory and manufacturing environments.

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244AK

Electrostatic Voltmeter - ISOPROBE® - Model 244AK

The model 244AK ISOPROBE® Electrostatic Voltmeter with 200:1 Output.

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244AL

Electrostatic Voltmeter - ISOPROBE® - 244AL

The model 244AL is a model 244A ISOPROBE® Electrostatic Voltmeter with its measurement range reduced to make precision high-speed, low-noise electrostatic measurements in the range of ±15 volts. This range reduction enables the instrument to resolve 10 mV on the surface. Front panel zero and balance controls elminate zero shift with spacing changes.

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279

Electrostatic Voltmeter - ISOPROBE® - Model 279

The model 279 ISOPROBE® Electrostatic Voltmeter measures surface potential in the range of ±3000 volts without contacting the measured surface It features high-accuracy (0.1%), drift-free measurements that are almost fully independent of probe-to-surface separation. Its low-profile design is optimized for rack mounting of multiple 279′s in a minimum space.

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279L

Electrostatic Voltmeter - ISOPROBE® - Model 279L

This instrument is a model 279 ISOPROBE® Electrostatic Voltmeter with its measurement range reduced to ±300 volts. This change improves the voltage resolution and noise performance for measurements below ±300 volts, and optimizes arc safety for sensitive measurements.

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About Electrostatic Voltmeters

 

A contacting voltmeter is not suitable to measure the voltage associated with the charge on an isolated conductor because the contacting voltmeter will discharge the object, thereby destroying the data that the observer is attempting to measure.

An electrostatic voltmeter performs a non-contacting measurement without modifying or destroying the charge.

The electrostatic voltmeter functions by placing a field sensing probe close to the surface of interest, but without contacting the surface. The electrostatic voltmeter drives the conductive housing of the field sensing probe to a voltage necessary to null the electric field between the probe and the surface of interest. This field-nulling condition is achieved when the voltage on the probe matches the unknown voltage on the surface of interest. By measuring the voltage on the probe, one deduces the (equal) voltage on the surface of interest.

This field-nulling technique is achieved with closed-loop voltage feedback using a high-voltage follower amplifier, which yields very high accuracy, excellent stability, and low drift performance for the electrostatic voltmeter. Accuracies better than 0.1% of full scale are common.

An additional benefit of the field-nulling technique is that the probe can be placed very close to the surface of interest without fear of arc-over between the probe and the surface. This is due to the action of the electrostatic voltmeter to maintain zero electric field strength between these two surfaces. Furthermore, placing the probe very close to the surface of interest results in the ability to resolve very small areas (>0.040″ / 1.0mm dia.).

Monroe Electronics, Inc. invented the first electrostatic voltmeter in the 1950′s to serve the needs of the electrophotographic industry for making non-contacting measurements of surface voltages on photoreceptors. Other common applications of the electrostatic voltmeter include electret research, contact potential measurements, triboelectric charge measurements in static-sensitive processes, radiation effect studies, and electrical monitoring and characterization of semiconductor wafers.

Furthermore, as the electrostatic voltmeter performs a non-contacting voltage measurement, it is ideally suited to measure the voltage associated with charges on moving surfaces.

 

Specialized Electrostatic Voltmeters and Probes

 
Over the years, Monroe Electronics has invented electrostatic voltmeters and probes for specialized applications.
 

Models Optimized to Measure Low Voltages

 
High-resolution probes resolve the smallest areas on the surface
Transparent probes allow illumination of the surface during measurement, as for photoreceptor characterization
 

 

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